ANALISIS DE ORINA DE GRAFF PDF

ANALISIS DE ORINA ATLAS COLOR [LAURINE GRAFF SISTER] on Amazon. com. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Get this from a library! Graff: análisis de orina y de los líquidos corporales. [Lillian A Mundt; Laurine Graff; Kristy Shanahan]. Analisis de Orina Graff – Ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or read book online. Analisis de orina.

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Uses authors parameter CS1 maint: The molecules with the greatest mass contribute more to the measure of specific gravity than smaller molecules. Infections caused by TrichomonasChlamydia and yeasts produce leukocyturia without bacteriuria. The haem fraction of these proteins is toxic for the renal tubules and elevated concentrations can cause acute renal insufficiency. The analysis includes testing for the presence of proteinsglucoseketoneshaemoglobinbilirubinurobilinogenacetonenitrite and leucocytes as well as testing of pH and specific gravity or to test for infection by different pathogens.

Uromodulin produced by the renal tubular epithelial cells and proteins from prostatic, seminal, and vaginal secretions. Regulating diet mainly controls urinary pH, although using medication can also control it. This is so because protein accepts hydrogen ions from the indicator. In the range 5 to 9 the strips show colours that change from orange at pH 5, passing through yellow and green to dark blue at pH 9.

In order to differentiate pH in this wide range it is common to use a double indicator system comprising methyl red and bromothymol blue. Blood present in large quantities can be detected visually. Therefore, chemical tests for hemoglobin provide the most accurate mean for determining the presence of blood.

False negatives can also be given by poorly stored samples as the bilirubin is photosensitive and undergoes photo oxidation to biliverdin when it is exposed to light, or hydrolysis of the glucuronide can occur producing free bilirubin which is less reactive.

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On the other hand, certain illnesses require a patient to keep the pH of their urine within given narrow margins, whether to promote the elimination of chemotherapeutic agents, avoid the precipitation of salts that promote the formation of gallstones, or in order to facilitate the control of a urinary infection.

The three ketone compounds appear in different proportions in the urine, although these proportions are relatively constant in different samples as both the acetone and the beta-hydroxybutyric acid are produced from the acetoacetic acid. An improper technique can produce false results, for example, leukocytes and erythrocytes precipitate at the bottom of the container and may not be detected if the sample is not properly mixed, and in the same way, if an excess of urine remains on the strip after it has been removed from the test sample, may cause the reagents to leak from the pads onto adjacent pads resulting in mixing and distortion of the colours.

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The test strips consist of a ribbon made of plastic or paper of about 5 millimetre wide, plastic strips have pads impregnated with chemicals that react with the compounds present in urine producing a characteristic colour.

The detection of urinary bilirubin is an early indication of liver disease and its presence or absence can be used to determine the causes of clinical jaundice. Uromodulin is routinely produced in the distal convoluted tube, and forms the matrix of casts.

An increase in the blood concentration of ketone produces a water-electrolyte imbalancedehydration and if not corrected, acidosis and oina the end diabetic coma. Part of the urobilinogen is reabsorbed in the intestine then circulated in the blood to the liver where it is excreted. With the aid of routine examinations early symptoms of the following four groups can be identified:.

Retrieved March 13, However, as the protein concentration increases, the colour progresses through various shades of green and finally to blue. Interpretation of trace readings can be difficult.

Urine test strip

Analysis of the supernatant for blood with a test strip will give a positive if myoglobin is present and a negative if hemoglobin is present.

Archived from the original on Retrieved 14 March Practical, focused, and reader friendly, this popular text teaches the theoretical and practical knowledge every clinical laboratory scientist needs to handle and analyze non-blood body fluids, and to keep them and their laboratory safe from infectious anakisis.

A false-positive trace reading may occur in specimens with a high specific gravity. It uses case studies and clinical situations to promote problem-solving and critical-thinking skills.

Of the routine chemical tests performed on urine, the most indicative ggaff renal disease is the protein determination. Readers will learn how to handle and preserve the integrity of body fluid specimens and how to keep themselves and their laboratory safe from infectious agents! At a pH level of 3, both indicators appear yellow in the absence of protein.

Unsolicited self-testing has become a popular measure in recent years as various urine test strips become available via pharmacy and online stores. To ensure that this does not occur it is recommended the edges of the strip are dried on absorbent paper. Many renal and urinary tract diseases may be asymptomatic for a long period of time. They also occur if strong oxidizing detergents are present in the specimen container.

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The colours vary from dark blue with a reading of 1.

Tira reactiva d’orina – Viquipèdia, l’enciclopèdia lliure

Once blood has been detected, the microscopic examination can be used to differentiate between hematuria and hemoglobinuria. However, as these compounds are derived from the acetoacetic acid their existence can dw assumed and a separate test is not therefore necessary.

Contrary to the general belief that indicators produce specific colours in response to particular pH levels, certain indicators change colour in the presence of protein even though the pH of the medium remains constant. Retrieved 13 March It offers comprehensive discussions of the physical, chemical, and microscopic analyses of urine. The urine test strip test for white blood cells detects leukocyte esterase, which is present in azurophilic granules of monocytes and granulocytes neutrophiliceosinophilic and basophilic.

The stercobilinogen can not be reabsorbed and anzlisis in the intestine. A number of substances interfere with the Ehrlich reaction on the Multistix strip: In many liver diseases the patients often show signs of pathology only at anslisis late stage. Glucose concentrations vary aanalisis an individual, and a healthy person can present with transitory glucosuria after a meal high in sugars; therefore the most representative results come from samples obtained at least two hours after food is eaten.

Hemoglobinuria can be caused by hemolytic anaemia, blood transfusions, extensive burnsdf bite of the recluse spider Loxoscelesinfections and strenuous exercise.

Urine test strip – Wikipedia

Highly pigmented urine and contamination of the container with quaternary ammonium compounds, yraff and antiseptics also cause false-positive readings. The test strips use a diazotization reaction in order to detect bilirubin. Higher numbers indicate urinary infection.

A urine test strip showing positive for blood can also indicate hemoglobinuriawhich is not detectable using a microscope due to the lysis of red blood cells in the urinary tract particularly in alkaline or dilute urineor intravascular hemolysis.

Large numbers of bacteria can react to reduce nitrite to nitrogen, which will give a false negative result. The test method consists of immersing the test strip completely in a well mixed sample of urine for a short period of time, then extracting it from the container and supporting the edge of the strip over the mouth of the container to remove excess urine.